Some nationals can get a visa for virtually any country in the world. Others, often citizens of countries in the so-called Global SouthThe term 'Global South' is used to refer to lower and middle income countries. The term is seen as more value free than 'Third world' or 'developing world', but is also criticised. The term is geographically inaccurate (most of the Global South countries are actually located in the Northern hemisphere), it homogenises countries that are part of the Global South, and the term is narrowly focused on economic development.× close, may face harsher travel restrictions. But visas not only discriminate based on nationality. They also discriminate based on gender.

When Indian women want to travel to Europe or the US, their visa applications often get rejected because it’s assumed that they only travel solo to find a man to get married and obtain a residence permit. Even if they can provide proof of a great life or career back home. Indian men are not subject to such assumptions – or only to a lesser extent.

Borders thus not only represent a global caste system, but they also reinforce patriarchy.